Impact of New Technologies by 2030

According to the 2012 report, Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds, published the US National Intelligence Council, four technology arenas will shape global economic, social and military developments by 2030. They are information technologies, automation and manufacturing technologies, resource technologies, and health technologies.

Information technologies

Three technological developments with an IT focus have the power to change the way we will live, do business and protect ourselves before 2030.

1. Solutions for storage and processing large quantities of data, including “big data”, will provide increased opportunities for governments and commercial organizations to “know” their customers better. The technology is here but customers may object to collection of so much data. In any event, these solutions will likely herald a coming economic boom in North America.

2. Social networking technologies help individual users to form online social networks with other users. They are becoming part of the fabric of online existence, as leading services integrate social functions into everything else an individual might do online. Social networks enable useful as well as dangerous communications across diverse user groups and geopolitical boundaries.

3. Smart cities are urban environments that leverage information technology-based solutions to maximize citizens’ economic productivity and quality of life while minimizing resources consumption and environmental degradation.

Automation and manufacturing technologies

As manufacturing has gone global in the last two decades, a global ecosystem of manufacturers, suppliers, and logistics companies has formed. New manufacturing and automation technologies have the potential to change work patterns in both the developed and developing worlds.

1. Robotics is today in use in a range of civil and military applications. Over 1.2 million industrial robots are already in daily operations round the world and there are increasing applications for non-industrial robots. The US military has thousands of robots in battlefields, home robots vacuum homes and cut lawns, and hospital robots patrol corridors and distribute supplies. Their use will increase in the coming years, and with enhanced cognitive capabilities, robotics could be hugely disruptive to the current global supply chain system and the traditional job allocations along supply chains.

2. 3D printing (additive manufacturing) technologies allow a machine to build an object by adding one layer of material at a time. 3D printing is already in use to make models from plastics in sectors such as consumers products and the automobile and aerospace industries. By 2030, 3D printing could replace some conventional mass production, particularly for short production runs or where mass customization has high value.

3. Autonomous vehicles are mostly in use today in the military and for specific tasks e.g. in the mining industry. By 2030, autonomous vehicles could transform military operations, conflict resolution, transportation and geo-prospecting, while simultaneously presenting novel security risks that could be difficult to address. At the consumer level, Google has been testing for the past few years a driverless car.

Resource technologies

Technological advances will be required to accommodate increasing demand for resources owing to global population growth and economic advances in today’s underdeveloped countries. Such advances can affect the food, water and energy nexus by improving agricultural productivity through a broad range of technologies including precision farming and genetically modified crops for food and fuel. New resource technologies can also enhance water management through desalination and irrigation efficiency; and increase the availability of energy through enhanced oil and gas extraction and alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power, and bio-fuels. Widespread communication technologies will make the potential effect of these technologies on the environment, climate and health well known to the increasingly educated populations.

Health technologies

Two sets of health technologies are highlighted below.

1. Disease management will become more effective, more personalized and less costly through such new enabling technologies as diagnostic and pathogen-detection devices. For example, molecular diagnostic devices will provide rapid means of testing for both genetic and pathogenic diseases during surgeries. Readily available genetic testing will hasten disease diagnosis and help physicians decide on the optimal treatment for each patient. Advances in regenerative medicine almost certainly will parallel these developments in diagnostic and treatment protocols. Replacement organs such as kidneys and livers could be developed by 2030. These new disease management technologies will increase the longevity and quality of life of the world’s ageing populations.

2. Human augmentation technologies, ranging from implants and prosthetic and powered exoskeleton to brains enhancements, could allow civilian and military people to work more effectively, and in environments that were previously inaccessible. Elderly people may benefit from powered exoskeletons that assist wearers with simple walking and lifting activities, improving the health and quality of life for aging populations. Progress in human augmentation technologies will likely face moral and ethical challenges.

Conclusion

The US National Intelligence Council report asserts that “a shift in the technological center of gravity from West to East, which has already begun, almost certainly will continue as the flows of companies, ideas, entrepreneurs, and capital from the developed world to the developing markets increase”. I am not convinced that this shift will “almost certainly” happen. While the East, in particular Asia, will likely see the majority of technological applications, the current innovations are taking place mainly in the West. And I don’t think it is a sure bet that the center of gravity for technological innovation will shift to the East.

The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Combating Crime in Sierra Leone

Introduction

I.C.Ts is very important in the world in general and developing countries to be specific. I.C.Ts have created significant impact in many areas when it comes to national development. When we take a look at the economy of the country, education, religion, Social Science and Technology we can see that I.C.Ts have contributed a lot in improving these areas. You might tend to wonder how but as you read along you will understand and see the importance of I.C.Ts in developing countries (Johnson, 2008).

I.C.Ts refer to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to information technology (I.T), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums (Marke, 2003).

I.C.Ts are concerned mainly with information management that is, acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics based communication of computer and telecommunication as its main fields (Julliet, 2001).

The Role of ICTs in Organisations

If any organization like the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in Sierra Leone is to grow and develop then there must be effective and efficient communication in the organisation. Information whether it is pictorial, textual, written or vocal form through which an information is communication from top to bottom or the reviser for the effective running of the organization the use of I. C. T. is very important because it makes it very easy through the use of cell phone, computers and other devices that we use to communicate information is due to the fact that we have what we call I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

• Through I. C.Ts. technology user can have easy access to information through an e-mail through by this it save the time of the staff just through by visiting his/her e-mail address he/she will know about the latest development in Criminal Investigation Department, without going to his/her or boss for information;

• I. C. Ts. have played very vital role in social media activities and the use of internet over the years and it is still making positive impact in our society today. Without I.C.Ts;

• I.C.Ts. have made it possible for a person in one country to order goods from another country, electronically from a second and pay for it electronically in a third.

I. C.Ts. Have changed the world industrial revolution forms from the mine tenth century and this change is permanent, because it creates new economic activities, new relations of production, new political forces, new job, and new outlook of life;

• I.C.Ts. have plays great role in the health sector of Criminal Investigation

Department by improving on healthcare awareness delivery and public awareness on important health issue. Through I. C. Ts. one can will be able to have access to medical information and trained specialists can reduce suffering and saves lives (Peter, 2005).

Historical background of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone Police Force is the brainchild of the British government. Its inception dates as far back as to 1808 when Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. In the absence of a formal organized body to keep the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates were appointed by Magistrates to come to Sierra Leone to maintain law and order. Between 1863-1888 the then Police Force had metamorphosed in order to address the ugly incidents, which were rearing their heads especially during the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the development of police along the frontier. In 1889, therefore, the police was divided- military and frontier duties were taken over by the Frontier Police white Civilian duties were left with the Frontier Police subsequently became known as the Court Messenger Force, and were made responsible for the colony.

On the 27th October 1894, in the Royal Gazette of that date, the civil police in the colony were given the designation “The Sierra Leone Police Force” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained unchanged to this day. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Army to control the police force, with the rank of superintendent and Mr. Brooks, a metropolitan police officer, was appointed inspector of police. In 1909 superintendent Brooks was appointed the first commissioner of police.

No real significant strides took place in the force, until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Superintendent of Police from Nigerian, took over command of the force as Commissioner of Police form Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The strength of the force was 300, including two (2) expatriates, the Commissioner and the Assistant Commissioner and Africans filled the rest the other ranks. The serious civil disturbances led to the quick introduction of the Riot Squad which was subsequently trained to contain further riots. Mr. Ward raised the strength to 600 and this created a welcome and overdue increase in promotion chances. For the first time Africans were promoted to the rank of Assistant superintendent of Police (A. S. P) and a fleet of vehicles comprising cars, lorries, motor cycle and bicycles was later obtained.

He started the proper training school at Port Loko in 1944, which was later transferred to the naval camp at hasting where it stands to this day. He also started local communications between police departments and eventually replace this by a police wireless communication system which today cover the whole country. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who raised the strength to 1,000, sent the first African sub-inspector to train a Henden which continued thenceforth. He introduced the first proper FORCE STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the police FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took over and wasted no time in taking policing to the provinces which resulted in its expansion. He affiliated the police force to International Police Organization (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a system in which every police officer was taught not duties no matter what section of the force he may be attached to.

Between 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh became the first Sierra Leonean Commissioner of Police and under his leadership a police Act was established in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the Sierra Leone police force that is, the protection of life and property, the prevention and detection of crime and the apprehension of offenders between 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith became the second Sierra Leone commissioner of police who led the force through Republic in 1971.

The uniform at this time consisted of grey shorts and grey jacket with black shoes and cummerbund. Section 174 of the Sierra Leone Constitution of 1978 changed the traditional role of the force by the appointment of the ten Commissioners of Police, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of the seven (7) appointed members of parliament by the Executive president, thus politicizing the role of the police force.

Between 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson becomes the first inspector – General of police. On the 1st of January, 1987, the force was re- divisionalized into police divisions each division being represented by letters, ranging from “A” to “N” and each division commanded by a chief police officer [C. P. O]. These were further sub-divided into police Districts and placed under the command of the officer commanding districts [o/c] who may be a Deputy Superintendent of police or Assistant Superintendent of Police (A.S.P.).

In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the good image of the Sierra Leone Police Force which had seriously dented by politics, the British Government sent Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Superintendent of Police to restructure the force. A series of police courses were then introduced into the curriculum in order to enhance the force in policing a modern democratic society training courses like the Junior and Senior Management Courses Trainers course, criminal investigation Department course known as the Yorkshire Course was introduced which went a long way to restructure the police.

The democratically elected Government of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the services of the British Government to help further restructure the Sierra Leone Police Force. The British Government responded by sending a team known as the Commonwealth Police Development Task Force. which was headed by the Inspector-General of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Under the dynamic leadership of the British born Inspector- General of police, the Sierra Leone police force is gradually regained the confidence of the public through the change management under the new restructured program, so that the force can become “Force For Good’ which is its known for today. (Sierra Leone Police Prospectus 2014).

Activities of Criminal Investigation Department (CID)

The following are the activities untaken by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:

Documentation

Crimes scene investigators are charged with the responsibility of formally documenting the crime scene. This documentation is usually permanent and constitutes the official record of the investigation. It can be forwarded to officers and law enforcement agencies for further use and investigation. Documentation includes photograph, diagrams and sketches, and written notes. At this point, the crimes scene investigation usually make some sort of initial interpretation of the evidence at hand and document the actions taken by the investigators at the actions taken by the investigators at the scene Effective documentation allows for an accurate re-party, such as a forensics team.

Legal Duties

The investigator must carry out a number of legal duties in relation to previous work. Based on their investigation, crime scene investigators help lawyers and other legal officials prepare criminal proceedings. They normally meet to explain their official reports and the evidence, making sure it’s understood. Investigators also are called on to testify in court, where they are the foremost authority on what was found on the scene and what conclusions were drawn.

They must be able to explain what the evidence means and why certain conclusions seem compelling based on investigation. Crime scene investigators must also be familiar with National and state laws and with relevant case law to put the evidence in perspective.

Evidence Collection

Once the scene has been secured, surveyed and documented, the crime scene investigator leads an effort to collect relevant evidence. This process can be slow and requires a great deal of patience, as well as the ability to effectively communicate and collaborate with others. An ability to properly and delicately deploy equipment is paramount here. Evidence, such as articles of clothing hair, nail clippings and fiber samples, must be collected in such a manner that its integrity is preserved. Labeled and sealed pouches maintain the integrity of the evidence as well as the chain of custody. The investigator also is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the crime scene by roping off the area, keeping witnesses from tampering with evidence and making spots where evidence was collected.

Search

The initial search, also called scene recognition, is the first walkthrough that or crime scene investigator takes. Upon the first examination, the crime scene investigator develops a strategy to approach the scene and apprehend evidence. This can include factors such as what directing to go in, prioritizing evidence that might disappear or be harmed; and determining what equipment and resources are necessary to effectively take stock of the situation. The crime scene investigator can assemble and lead the team to investigate the scene and collect evidence. Murder scenes, for example, may require investigators to collect blood and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery may require fingerprints, from points of entry and other surfaces the burglar may have touched.

Examples of ICTs used by the C I D

In modern times, policing has been done with the use of technological items to enable them carryout their activities with the ease and for effective and efficient service delivery. ICTs. refer to technologies that provide access to information, through telecommunication which is similar to information technology (I T), but here focus is primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones and other communication media The following information communication technologies are used by the CID of the Sierra Leone police

• Closed-Circuit television (CCTV): to monitor events/ happenings within their areas of responsibilities and to be used as pictorial/ visual evidence in court and for records purposes.

• Digital Cameras: these are used to take snap shots of enable effective and efficient investigations with real evidence to be tendered in court as evidence.

• Drivers: these are used to save/keep useful information about an investigation such as progress reports, abstract reports, summary of evidence, and proceedings/rulings about a matter.

• Photo Copiers: they are primarily used to duplicate reports and other documents to be distributed to various authorities concerned for their personal directives and necessary action.

• Scanners: these are most common now as a result of terrorist threats and can be used for humans, cars and for baggage’s in order to detect / prevent crime and the fear of crime and to restore confidence in the populace. It can be used to detect any offensive objects/ weapons and to prevent any mishap.

• Computers: are now commonly used to investigate criminal worldwide. With the help of computers, the Interpol can track criminals from every continent and the various police headquarters can liaise with each other to get the desired outcome. Also, could computing has been so much influential investigations in order to locate the where about of criminals and to track their acts/actions and accomplices.

Problems associated with the use of ICTs and information delivery of the CID in the Sierra Leone Police.

• Power Challenges: Lack of consistent and affordable electricity is the greatest challenge in designing a computing infrastructure for criminal information (or any other application that matter). The vast majority of criminal investigation facilities in the criminal investigation department have no main power and, where available, such power is usually extremely unreliable or so unstable that it poses a threat to unprotected electronic equipment.

• Environmental Challenges: The physical environment in Sierra Leone and in most other areas in the country is characterized by some combination of heat, dust and humidity, each of which is a problem for standard computers. High speed Central Processing Units generate enormous amounts of heat that, if not properly dissipated, reduces performance or can render these systems in operable. Dust threatens sensitive electronics by shorting circuits and impeding airflow and heat dissipation. Humidity leads to condensation corrosion and even mold, all of which can cause electrical problems and possibly shorten equipment lifespan.

• Connectivity Challenges: Lack of affordable connectivity and bandwidth in the primary obstacle to several of the most promising criminal investigation applications in the CID, including training initiatives and other real- time support Lack of connectivity also complicates more basic efforts to collect and analyse criminal information.

CONCLUSION

It is increasingly clear that information is the life blood of the CID system. Accurate, timely and accessible crime information strengthens literally every part of the system, from policy making, to logistic and training. In contrast, inefficient crime information systems suffer from an information anemia that weakens the system.

Sadly, all too many crime systems in the developing world still suffer from the equivalent information shock, a system threaten condition characterized by the inability to generate access or act on even the most essential crime information. Success or failure of ICTs deployment in Criminal Investigation Department depends on access to affordable, integrated solutions that are both sustainable in low resource setting and adaptable to local condition invented is actively developing and deploying such system specially to address this need. It is therefore quite necessary to note that ICTs play a critical and crucial role in enhancing the successful provision, management and delivery of information in combating crimes.

Should Information Technologies and Internet Availability Make Work From Home the Norm?

Do you think with the skill set you have and the digital tools that are available to you, you can rather work from home other than going to office, working 9-5? How about there being a balance between the two? Can working from home gradually become the norm?

In my opinion if you are an IT person, there should be some flexibility in working 9-5 regularly at the office. The authorities involved should seriously give it a thought. Almost everybody nowadays owns a laptop and having internet availability and digital tools in hand, they can work anytime in the comfort of their home rather than following a strict 9-5 schedule.

Although working from home is the modern approach, many IT firms still make it a point to work regularly in the office. So I think there can be some balance between the two options. For instance, working from home thrice a week and going to office twice a week would be a good schedule for work. I think productivity is more this way because the individual gets a lot of rest, sleep and home cooked food which gives them the ability to work efficiently with renewed vigor and energy.

The less the work pressure in the morning about getting dressed, setting for office by car through the traffic jam to be on time, the better the individual is going to feel. He gets more freedom, enjoys quality family time and also works comfortably from home this way.

The person can also, in a relaxed way, sign up for online courses and amplify his expertise if he does not have to spend all five days at the office. That way he achieves greater skill set which will be good for his company because the person is now in a better position to tackle harder and longer projects, beating all the odds.

A company does need skilled and competent employees. If by staying and working from home, employees can be of greater service, the company has nothing to lose but rather to gain a lot. There can be deadlines for projects in the usual way – the only difference is that the employees get their work done by spending more time at home, gotcha?

There can be meetings and presentations on the two office days that I have suggested earlier. So the employees are on track; they know how many milestones they have already covered and how many more they have to carry on.

There can be seminars, birthday celebrations, festive dinners and other get-together parties in the office in the usual way. None of these social networking has to stop. The only point I am making here is that the employees are happier and more comfortable in their shoes by getting some liberty, working more time from the luxury of their sweet homes.